Home

Main Menu

Sections

 
The Frontpage
Who are Qutubs and Abdaals? Could you please give some detail view from the Ahl Sunnah point of view. PDF Print E-mail

Normal 0 false false false EN-ZA X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:3.7pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; text-align:right; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-ZA;}

Q: 270 – Title: Who are Qutubs and Abdaals? Could you please give some detail view from the Ahl Sunnah point of view.

Question

Who are Qutubs and Abdaals? Could you please give some detail view from the Ahl Sunnah point of view.

Answer

In the name of All?h, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Assal?mu ?alaykum wa Rahmatull?hi Wabarak?tuh

The vast majority of Scholars from the Ahl as sunnah hold the view that Abdaals do exist. In fact, Hafidh Ibn as Salah has declared that there is consensus on this view. Hereunder follows the names of just a few illustrious Scholars who explicitly mentioned their views [Also refer to the introduction of Allamah Suyuti’s ‘Al Khabr ad daal’(Dar al usool)]

1) Allamah Ibn Abi ad Dunya (he has mentioned many Ahadith in his book, ‘Al Awliya’)

2) Allamah Abu az Zinaad (ibid 27)

3) Allamah Abdullah an Nabbaji (ibid 28)

4) Allamah Abu Muhammad Al Khallaal (he has dedicated an entire  chapter to this subject in his ‘Karaamaat al Awliya’)

5) Allamah Ibn Asaakir (he has dedicated two chapters to this subject in his magnificent ‘Taarikh ad Dimashq’.)

6) Allamah Ibn  Salah (as could be found in his Fatawa (1/184)

7) Allamah Zarkashi (he discussed this subject in his ‘At Tadhkirah fil Ahadith al mushtahirah (1/144)

8) Allamah Taqi ad deen Al Hisni (he has refuted the view of Ibn Taymiyyah in his ‘Daf shubahi man shabbaha wa tamarradah’(1/123)

9) Allamah Sakhawi (in Maqaasid al hasanah, he mentioned that he has written an entire treatise on this subject entitled ‘Nadhm al la’ali fi hadith al Abdaal’)

10) Allamah Suyuti (he has written on this in many of his works like Al Jami al Kabeer, Al Jami as sagheer, Al La’ali al masnoo’ah, Ad durar al muntathirah and he has written an entire work entitled ‘Al Khabr ad daal’)

11) Allamah Al Qastallani (he has dedicated an entire chapter in his ‘Al Mawaahib al laduniyah)

12) Allamah Ali bin Muhammad Al Kinani (he has discussed the issue of Abdaals in his ‘ Tanzeeh as Shariah al marfoo’ah)

13) Allamah Ibn Hajar Al Haytami (in his fatawa al hadithiyyah)

14) Mullah Ali Al Qari (he has discussed this subject in much detail in his famous commentary, ‘Mirqaat al mafaatih’.)

15) Allamah Murtadha Az Zubaidi (in his ‘Ithaaf As Saada al muttaqeen)

16) Allamah Ibn Abideen Al Hanafy (he has written an entire treatise on this subject entitled ‘Ijaabah al ghauth’)

17) Allamah Muhammad bin Jafar Al Kattani (as discussed in his ‘Nazm al mutanathir’)

18) Allamah Nuh bin Mustafah Al Hanafy (who wrote ‘Al Qawl ad daal ala hayaat al Khidhr wa wujood al Abdaal)

It is also surprising to note that the teacher and Shaykh of Allamah Ibn al Qayyim (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him), Allamah Ibn Taymiyyah (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) also testified to the existence of the Abdaal. Thus, he mentions in his infamous ‘Al Aqeedah al wastiyyah’

??? ??? ???? ????? ??? ???? ???? ? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??? : ( ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ) ??? ????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ???? ???? ? ??? : ( ?? ???? ????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ) ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ???? «??????? ????????» (? 1 / ? 32( ? ???? «????? ???????» (? 3 / ? 159)

“However, since Nabi ??? ???? ???? ? ??? has predicted that the Ummah will divide into seventy three groups; all of who will be in the fire except one group which is the ‘Jama’ah; (The Jama’ah is) as described in another hadith: “They remain on the like of that which I am on and my companions”, it becomes (known that) the true adherents of Islam in its pristine purity are the Ahl al Sunnah wal Jama`ah. Amongst them are the truthful saints (siddiqoon), the martyrs and the righteous ones. Also found amongst them are those men who are signs of guidance and hallmarks of illumination, of recorded integrity and virtues were mentioned. The Abdaals are amongst them. Also the Imams who (the general) Muslim populace are in full accord concerning their guidance of religion are to be found among them. These are the Victorious Group about whom the Prophet said: "A group within my Community manifestly continues to be in the truth. Neither those who oppose them nor those who abandon them can do them harm, from now on until the Day of Resurrection….” (Al Aqeedah al waastiyyah 1/32. Also check Majmoah al fatawa 3/159)

In another place Hafidh Ibn Taymiyyah mentioned,

???? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? : ?? " ??????? " ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????? «????? ??????? » (? 4 / ? 97)

((As for the people of knowledge, they used to say: (Scholars of hadith) are the Abdaals, because they are the Abdaal (substitutes) and representatives of the prophets…)) (Majmoah fatawa 4/97) (P.S We do acknowledge that there are other opinions mentioned in his other works).

Furthermore, when discussing a narrator, Muhaddithoon used to often describe some narrators as Abdaals. This is sufficient proof that many Scholars of Hadith also acknowledged the existence of Abdaals. Below are just a few examples.

1) In his ‘Al Ilal’ (6/29), Imam Ad Daar Qutni (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) quoted Imam Ahmad (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) as saying: “If there is any Abdaal in Baghdaad, it is Abu Ishaaq Ebrahim bin Hani.” At another place (6/63) it is mentioned that An Nadhr bin Katheer is said to be from the Abdaal.

2) Some Muhaddithoon considered Imaam Shaafi’ee (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him )to be an Abdaal (Al-Maqasid al Hasanah (pg.28) and Taarikh ad Dimashq)

3) Imam Bukhari (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) has mentioned in his At Tarikh al Kabeer (7/127) that people had no doubt that Farwa bin Mujalid was an Abdaal.

4) In the Sunan of Abu Dawood it is mentioned that Abu Jafar bin Easa (r.a) considered Ambasa bin Abdul Wahid Al Qurahi to be an Abdaal (Hadith no. 2992).

5) In the Sunan of Ibn Majah it is mentioned that Yahyah bin Uthmaan bin Saeed was considered to be from the Abdaal (Hadith no. 3348).

6) In ‘As sunnah’ (2/596) of Ibn Abi Asim it is mentioned that Ziyaad Abu Umar was said to be from the Abdaals.

7) Ibn Hibbaan (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) has mentioned in his ‘At thiqaat’ (5/549) that Yusuf Jawwal An Nuqad was from the Abdaals. In another place of the same book (8/64) it is mentioned that Imam Auzaa’i stated that Musa bin A’yun Al Jazari was from the Abdaals.

8) Ibn Abi Ad Dunya (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) mentions in his ‘Al Awliyah’ (pg 35) that Saeed bin Sadaqah Abu Muhalhil was said to be from the Abdaals. In his book ‘Sifah an nar’ (pg 242) he mentioned that Al Fadhl bin Abbaas Al Kindi was from the Abdaal. In his book ‘Dham ad dunya’ (pg 31) there is mention that people considered Al Harith bin Muslim Ar Razi to be an Abdaal.

9) In Musnad Ad Daarimy it is mentioned that Zahra bin Mabad was an Abdaal (Hadith no. 3429).

10) Khateeb Baghdadi (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) has quoted in his ‘Mudhi awhaam al jam wat tafreeq’ (2/348) that people used to say that Fahr bin Ziyaad Al Barqi was an Abdaal.

11) In ‘Al Ma’rifah wat tareekh’ (1/229) of Allamah Fasawi (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) it is stated that the people of Makkah used to say, “Wuhaib is from the Abdaals”.

12) In Akhbaar Makkah of Allamah Fakihi (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) it is mentioned that Ibrahim bin Easa Al Yashkuri was an Abdaal (Hadith no. 654) It is also mentioned that Yahyah bin Saeed bin Katheer is from the Abdaals (Hadith no. 877).

13) In four places in Musnad Ahmad it is mentioned that Musa bin Khalaf  was from the Abdaals (Hadith no. 15671, 17170,17800,26911) The same is mentioned of him in ‘Ithaaf al khairah al mahara’.

14) In ‘Hilya al Awliya’ it is mentioned that the following were Abdaals. A) Muhammad bin Adam Al Misseesiy (2/144). B) Saeed bin Sadaqah Al Kaysani (4/250). C) Yahya al Jalla (9/191). D) Ali bin Abdul Hameed (10/366).

15) In Shuab al Iman of Imam Bayaqi (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) it is mentioned that Harith bin Muslim Ar Razi was considered to be from the Abdaals (Hadith no. 10585).

16) In ‘At tamheed’ of Allamah Ibn Abdul Barr (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) there are numerous places where certain narrators were said to be Abdaals. Amongst others, the following were said to be from the Abdaals. A) Ma’dy bin Sulayman Al Hannat (1/368). B) Ibnul Mubarak said that if there is any Abdaal in Khuraasaan, it is Ma’daan (7/142). C) Khalaf said “Insha Allah, Abdul Hameed bin Ahmad bin Easa Al Warraaq is a Abdaal (24/159).

17) Nawawi (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) in Bustan al-`arifin (pg 31) mentions that Hammad bin Salimah was considered as an Abdaal.

18) Allamah Ayni (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) mentions in his magnificent commentary of Al Bukhari, Umdah al Qari that Hammad bin Salimah bin Dinar was considered as an Abdaal. (Baab ma yaqool inda al khala) In another place (commentary of hadith 1432) it is mentioned that Abu Tawbah Rabi bin Nafi was considered to be from the Abdaal. Under the commentary of hadith 5532, it is mentioned that Khattab was from the Abdaals.

19) In Allamah Ayni’s commentary of Abu Dawood it is stated that Yahyah bin Maeen and Abu Hatim considered the brother of Mugheirah to be from the Abdaals.

20) In Fath al bari (1/357), Hafidh Ibn Hajar (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) quoted a sanad of Musnad Abi Awwanah in which it is mentioned that Abu Ibrahim Az Zuhri was an Abdaal.

21) In Allamah Zurqani’s commentary of Muwattah Imam Malik it is stated that Shaadhkooni said: “...Ma’di was considered to be from the Abdaal.” Also quoted in Mir’aat (3/412).

22) In Faiz al Qadeer (2/538) it is mentioned that Ali bin Umar Al Harbi is from the Abdaals.

Similarly, Scholars of hadith also described some narrators as ‘Aqtaab’. Consider the following

1) Ibn al Atheer (may Allah Ta’ala be pleases with him) noted that Sufyan at Thawri was from the Aqtaab. (Jami al usool fi Ahadith ar Rasool 12/466)

2) Abu al Wafa Al Qurashi (may Allah be pleased with him) has also mentioned that Sufyan at Thawri was from the Aqtaab of Islam. (Tabaqaat al hanafiyyah 1/546)

3) Umar bin Ali Al Jazzairi (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) wrote a kitab ‘Ibtisaam al uroos’ in which he termed Shaykh Ahmad bin Uroos as qutb al Aqtaab. (Al A’laam li az Zarqali 1/169).

4) Ibn Farhoon (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) has described Ali bin Muhammad bin Abdul Haq Az Zurwaili as a Qutb. (Ad Debaaj al mudhahab fi ma’rifati a’yaan Ulama al madhab 1/116).

5) Ibn al Mulaqqin (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) mentioned that Fudhail bin Ayaaz was from the Aqtaab. (Tabaqaat al Awliyah 1/44). At another place (1/64) he mentioned that Abu Sulayman Ad Daaraani Al Anasy was from the Awtaad and Aqtaab.

The above statements prove that the term ‘Abdaal’ and ‘Aqtaab’ were commonly known and used amongst the Muhaddithoon and other early scholars. (They are not something innovated, especially since Muhaddithoon-who were extremely precautious against innovations- mentioned them). Khateeb Al Baghdaadi (may Allah be pleased with him) has opined in his ‘Sharf Ashaab al Hadeeth’ (pg 100/101) that Abdaals are (mostly) found amongst the Scholars of hadith. The Shaykh of Allamah Ibn al Qayyim, Allamah Ibn Taymiyyah has also quoted in his majmoah al fatawa (4/97) that the knowledgeable always considered Abdaals to be from the Ashaab al hadeeth.

As for the statement which you have quoted from Allamah Ibn al Qayyim (may Allah be pleased with him), the exact wording of it is as follows

??? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ???? ??? ???? ???? ? ??? «?????? ??????» (? 1 / ? 136)

This statement is incorrect. There are numerous Ahadith which proves the existence of Abdaals. Allamah Munawi (may Allah be pleased with him) quoted that the master in hadith, Hafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allah be pleased with him) mentioned in one of his verdicts

???? ???? ??? ??? ?? ?????? : ??????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? «??? ??????» (? 3 / ? 220  ??? ????? ???????)

((Abdaals are mentioned in many Ahadith, some are authentic whereas others are weak. Qutb is also mentioned in some Ahadith)) (Faiz al Qadeer 3/220)

In fact, Imam Suyuti claimed that these Ahadith reached the status of tawaatur (A hadith which is narrated through so many different narrators in every era that it is not possible for so many people to concoct a lie)  due to the numerous chains. (An Nukat al badee’aat, pg 280). In order to prove this, Imam Suyuti wrote an entire treatise entitled ‘Al Khabr ad daal ala wujood al Qutub wal Awtad wan Nujabah wal Abdaal.’

The following Hadith which is narrated in several books of hadith is authentic. It is interesting to note that Ibn Qayyim (r.a) himself mentioned that this hadith is suitable in the very same book which you have quoted from [i.e. Al Manaar al muneef no 331, pg 145]. He has also maintained silence on it in his footnotes of Abu Dawood which denotes on his acceptance of it. (Note- we have explained the chain of narrators in Arabic. This will be appreciated by Scholars and it will not be a means of confusion for the general layman)

??? ??? ???? ?? ???? - (? 4 / ? 175)

4288 - ????? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??? ????? -??? ???? ???? ????- ?? ????? -??? ???? ???? ????- ??? « ???? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ???? ????????? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ????? -??? ???? ???? ????- ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ????? ???? ???????? ». ??? ??? ???? ??? ????? ?? ???? « ??? ???? ». ???? ????? « ??? ???? ». (????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ? ??? ???? «????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ???? « ??? ???? » ?? ??? ??? ???? «???? ??? ???? ?? ???? « ??? ???? » ? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ???? (7/460 ??? 37223) ????? (6/316 ? ??? 26731) ? ? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? (? 4 / ? 170) ?? ??? ????? (1/280) ? ???? ???? (12/369 ? ??? 6940) ? ??? ???? ??? ??????? - (? 1 / ? 280) ? ? ??? ???? (15/158 ??? 6757) ? ???? ?? ???? ???? ?? ????? ? ??? ???  ??? ???? - (? 12 / ? 369) ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??? «????? ??? ???? ?? ????? »? ??? ??? ??? ???? ???? ????: «?? ????? ??? ?» ??? : «??? ???? ?? ??????». ]??? ??????(? 2 / ? 411)[  ? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? «?????? ??????» (? 23 / ? 390) ? «?????? ??????» (? 2 / ? 35) ?? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????? ?? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ? ??? ?? ???? «??? ???? ???? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????» ? ??? ??????? ?? «???? ??????? » (? 7 / ? 613) «???? ???????? ?? «?????? »?????? ???? ??????» ? ??? ??? ????? ?? «?????? ??????» (? 1 / ? 145)«??????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???? » ? ??? ?????? ????? ?? «??? ???????»  (? 11 / ? 255)« ??? ??? ????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ???? ???????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ????  ??? ???? ??? ?? ????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ??????  ??? ???? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ?????  ??? – ?????? ?????? ?????- ?? ?? ?? ??? ???? ???? ????? ????? ?? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ????»

Umm Salama (r.a) said: “Disagreement will take place at the death of a Caliph.  A man from Madinah will come forth fleeing to Makkah. Some of the people of Makkah will come to him, bring him out against his will and swear allegiance to him between the Corner of the Ka’bah and the Maqam. An expeditionary force will then be sent against him from Syria but will be swallowed up in the desert between Makkah and Madinah, and when the people see that, the Abdaal of Syria and the best people (`asaba) of Iraq will come to him and swear allegiance to him...”

(Narrated by Abu Dawood, Ibn Abi Shaybah,Ahmad, Ishaq bin Rahooyah, Ibn Asaakir, Abu Ya’la, Ibn Al Bukhtari, Ibn Hibbaan and many others. Allamah Al Haythami said that the narrators are authentic. Allamah Ibn al Qayyim said, “The hadith is good and could also be said to be authentic.”)

Moreover, we found the following two narrations which, although some Scholars say is weak, many also say it is authentic. (Again, we have explained the chains of narrators in Arabic)

??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ????? - (? 5 / ? 322 ??? 22803)

22803 - ????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???? ? ??? ??? ??? : ??????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ?? ? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ???? ??? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????? (?????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ? ??????? ?? «?????? ????????» ? ? ?????? ??????? ?? «????? ??????» (1/248) ? ???? ???? ?? «????? ??????» (1/180) ??????? ?? «???? ????? ????????» (1/248) ? ???? ????? (1/292) ????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ????? ?? .? ??? ??? ?????? ?? «??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????» (? 1 / ? 78) ??? ????????? «?? ??? ??» ???? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ????????? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ???? ????????? ?? ?????????  ]????? ??????? - (? 6 / ? 389)[

????? ??? ????? ???????? ?? «??????» (? 4 / ? 247) ? ??? «??? (???? ???? ?? ??? ????) ????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ?????» ??? ??????? ?? «???? ???????»  (? 10 / ? 46) :« ????? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ? ????? ??????» ? ??? ??????? : «???? ???» ? ??? ?? «????????? ??????» ?????? (? 48 ? ??? 146) . ? ??? ???????? ?? «??? ??????» - (? 1 / ? 25) «??? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??? ? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ? ????? ???????? ? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ? ?? ??? ???? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ? ??? ??? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? . ????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ??????? »

??? ??????? ?? «?????? ??????» (? 1 / ? 114)«(????) ???? ? ??????? ? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ???» ? ??? ??? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? (87) «? ??? - ?? ???????- ?? ????? ???????? ???? ??? ??? ??????

??? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ]????? ??????? - (? 6 / ? 389)[

Ubadah Bin As Samit (Radhi Allahu anhu) narrates that Nabi ??? ???? ???? ? ??? has said, “The Abdaals of this Ummah are thirty people whose hearts are like Ibrahim (Alayhi as salam). Every time one from amongst them passes away, Allah Ta’ala replaces him with another.”(Narrated by Imam Ahmad, Haytham bin Kulaib, Khilaal, Hakim At Tirmidhi, Abu Nuaim, Khateeb, Ibn Asaakir, At Tabrani and others. Allamah Zarkashi said, its (chain) is good)

??? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ????? - (? 1 / ? 112)

896 - ????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??? ??? ????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??? ???? ???? ? ??? ???? : ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ?????? (? ???? ???? ?? ???? ???? ?? «????? ??????? »(? 2 / ? 906) ? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ????? (? 11 / ? 249) ???? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??? ????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??????? ? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? «????????» (? 1 / ? 272) ? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? «???? ????????» (? 10 / ? 489) (???? ???? ?? ??? ????? ????) ? ??? ??????? ?? «???? ???????» (? 10 / ? 45) ???? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ???) ? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ????? ? ?????? ???? . «????? ?????? ??????» (? 7 / ? 356)

Ali (Radhi Allahu anhu) has narrated that Nabi ??? ???? ???? ? ??? has said, “Abdaals will be in Syria. They are forty men. Every time one of them passes away, Allah replaces him with another. Through them does the rain descend and you gain victory over your enemies. It is also because of them that punishment is averted from the people of Syria.” (Narrated by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad and Fadhaail as Sahabah,  Allamah Abdur Razzaq, Allamah Dhiyah al Maqdasy and others. Allamah Suyuti, Busairi and others said that the chain is authentic)

Allamah Munawi (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) has clarified an important misconception which could arise from the above hadith. He mentions

(?????) ?? ??? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ???? ????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? : ???? ???? ????? ???? ????? : ??? ??? ???? ????? ????? ??? : ????? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? «??? ??????» (? 3 / ? 218)

The meaning of what was stated that “…Through them does the rain descend and you gain victory over your enemies. It is also because of them that punishment is averted from the people of Syria.” Is that these things take place because of their duas (Allah Ta’ala is the true doer of all these).

??? ???????? ?? «?????? ??????» - (? 18 / ? 65)

????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?? ???? ??? : ??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??? : ?? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ??? ???? ???? ? ??? ???? : ( ???? ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? (??? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? - (? 10 / ? 47) ???? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ????  ? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? (? 1 / ? 856) ? ??? ??? ??? ?? ????? (88) ??? ??????? ?? ????? ????????: ???? ???

Auf bin Malik (r.a) told the people of Egypt, “O people of Egypt, I am Auf bin Malik, do not swear the people of Syria for verily I have heard Nabi ??? ???? ???? ? ??? saying, “Amongst them is the Abdaal through who you are aided and (you are also) given sustenance (by virtue of their prayers).” (Narrated by At Tabrani and graded as good by Suyuti and others)

There are also numerous statements mentioned from the Sahabah. Since this is a matter which cannot possibly be imagined by the human intellect, Scholars of hadith grade these statements of Sahabah on the same level as marfoo (a statement of Nabi ??? ???? ???? ? ???). In his treatise, Imam Suyuti mentioned narrations of the following Sahabah. Many of these statements could also be found in Allamah Nuh bin Mustafa’s ‘Al Qawl ad daal ala hayaat al khidhr wa wujood al abdaal’.

1) Umar bin Khattab (Radhi Allahu anhu)

2) Ali (Radhi Allahu anhu)

3) Anas (Radhi Allahu anhu)

4) Hudhaifah (Radhi Allahu anhu)

5) Ubaadah bin As Saamit (Radhi Allahu anhu)

6) Ibn Abbaas (Radhi Allahu anhu)

7) Ibn Umar (Radhi Allahu anhu)

8) Ibn Masood (Radhi Allahu anhu)

9) Auf bin Malik (Radhi Allahu anhu)

10) Mu’aaz bin Jabal (Radhi Allahu anhu)

11) Waathilah bin Al Asqa (Radhi Allahu anhu)

12) Abu Saeed Al Khudri (Radhi Allahu anhu)

13) Abu Hurairah (Radhi Allahu anhu)

14) Abu Ad Darda (Radhi Allahu anhu)

15) Um Salamah (Radhi Allahu anhu)

In fact, the following statement of Ali (Radhi Allahu anhu) is said to be narrated with the most authentic chain. Ibn Salah (may Allah be pleased with him) has said that this has the strongest chain of narrators. Imam Sakhawi (may Allah be pleased with him) said that this is the best of what is narrated (on this subject). Some have also  mentioned it as a hadith of Nabi ??? ???? ???? ? ???

??? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ???????? (? 4 / ? 596)

8658 - ?????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ??? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ???? : ???? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ???? : ????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ? ????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ? ??? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ???? ? ???? ??? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ??? ? ?? ???? ?????? ???????? ? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??????( ???? ?????? ? ??? «??? ???? ???? ??????? ? ?? ?????? »? ? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? : «????» ? ??? ??? ?????? ?? «??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? » (? 1 / ? 77) ??? ??? ?????? «???? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ???????» ? ? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? «?????? ?????? » (? 4 / ? 176)  ?? ???? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???? ?? ???? ???? ??? ???? ???? ? ???  ? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ? ??? ??? ????? (1/331) «??? ??? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?????» ?? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ?? ? ??? ??????? ?? «???? ???????» - (? 7 / ? 616  ??? ?????) «???? ???????? ?? «??????» ???? ??? ????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ????» ? ??? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?????

Ali (Radhi Allahu anhu) has said, “There will be tribulations through people will gain (wealth) as gold is attained from a mine. So do not swear the people of Damascus, but rather speak out against their oppression, for verily, amongst them are Abdaals …..”   (Narrated by Hakim who graded it as authentic. Dhahabi also agreed on its authenticity.)

Besides the above, there are numerous ‘inferior’ Ahadith which are also narrated concerning the Abdaals.  Due to the large number, they could be cited to substantiate and prove the existence of Abdaals. The great Scholar, Allamah Munawi (may Allah be pleased with him) has stated,

??? ??????? ?? «?????» [3/170] «???? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????»

“These Ahadith are such, that even if you assume all of them to be weak; only an ignorant person of the science of hadith or a stubborn bigot will deny that weak Ahadith are strengthened due to many chains and many people narrating it.”

Having said this, we now go on to enumerate the Ahadith which Allamah As Sakhaawy has alluded to in his famous ‘Al Maqaasid al hasanah (pg 8-10)

??????? ?????? ??????? - (? 1 / ? 9/8)

???? ( ??????? ) ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????

???? ?????? ?? «?????? ????????» ???? ( ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ????? )

????? ???????? ?? «??????» ???? ( ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???

????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ???? ( ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ?????? )

???? ???? ??? ??? ???? ?? «??????» ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ( ?? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???? )

??? ??? ???????? ?? «??????» ( ??? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? )

????? ???? ?? «??????» ?? ??? ??? ???? ( ???? ???? ?? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? ??? ) ????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ( ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ????? ????????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ??? )

??? ??? ?????? ( ?? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? ??? ??? ?? ????? ???? )

??? «??????» ???? ?? ??? ????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ( ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ??? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ) ????? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ( ??????? ???????? ???????? )

??????? ??????? ???? ??? ???????? ?? «???????» ????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ?? «????? ???????» ?? ??? ??? ???? ??? ???? ???? ( ?? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? )

????????? ?? «???????» ?? ???? ??? ???? ????

“The hadith of Abdaal: “It has a number of different routes from Anas (RA) from the Prophet ??? ???? ???? ? ???, with different wordings, all of which are da'eef. Amongst them are:

A) The hadith related by Al Khalaal in ‘Karaamaat al-Awliyaa’, “the Abdaal are forty men and forty women, every time a man passes away, Allaah substitutes another man in his place, and every time a woman dies, Allaah substitutes another woman in her place”

B) The hadith narrated by At Tabaraany in ‘Al Awsat’ with the following wording, “there will always be forty people on the earth who are like the Khaleel (friend) of the most merciful (Ebrahim), alayhis salaam, and by them the people will be given to drink (or have rain come down), and  through them  people will be aided, whenever one of them dies,  Allaah (immediately)substitutes him with another (who take his place.)”

C) The hadith related by Ibn Adee in ‘Kaamil’, “The Abdaal are forty; twenty two from Shaam, and eighteen from Iraq, each time one of them dies Allaah substitutes another one in his place. And when the Command comes then all of them will be taken (qubidoo) and at that time the Hour (Qiyamah) will be established.”

D) Likewise, it is related by Ahmad, Al Khallaal and others from Ubaadah bin Saamit (RA) from the Nabi ??? ???? ???? ? ???, “There will always be thirty people in this Ummah like Ebrahim, the friend of the most merciful, each time one of them dies Allaah substitutes another in his place.”

E) In the ‘Kabeer’ of At Tabaraany the following wording appears, “and by them the earth will remain established, and by them it will rain, and by them they (the Muslims) will be aided.”

F)  The hadith of Abu Nu’aym in ‘Al-Hilya’ from Ibn Umar  from the Nabi ??? ???? ???? ? ???, ‘the chosen ones of my nation are five hundred in every generation, and the Abdaal are forty, neither the five hundred nor the forty will decrease, each time one of them dies Allah puts another in his place.” The Companions enquired, “Please inform us of their actions” Nabi ??? ???? ???? ? ??? replied, “They forgive those who oppress them, and they show kindness to those who ill treat them and they embrace what Allah has given them”

G) Al Khallaal has the wording, “There will constantly be forty people by virtue of whom Allah will preserve the earth, every time one of them dies Allah substitutes another in his place.”

H) Also the hadith in ‘Al Hilya’ narrated from Ibn Mas'ud (RA), “there will always be forty people from my Ummah whose hearts are like the heart of Ebrahim, Allah will avert (evil from) the people of the earth through them, they will be called the Abdaal. Indeed they did not attain it (this position of Abdaal) by (a great deal of) prayers or fasting or giving in charity.” Sahabah asked, “So how did they attain it, O Messenger of Allah?” Nabi ??? ???? ???? ? ??? replied, “through generosity, and by advising the Muslims."

I) The hadith reported by at-Tabaraany in “Al Ajwaad” and others like Ibn  Laal in ‘Makaarim al akhlaaq’ on the authority of Anas (RA) from the Messenger ??? ???? ???? ? ??? , “Indeed the Abdaal of this ummah will not enter Paradise due to (a great deal) of prayers or fasting, but they will enter due to generosity, clean hearts and advising the Muslims."

J) Al Kharaa’ity related a similar hadith from Abu Sa'eed (RA) in ‘Al Makaarim’

CONCLUSION

It would be ideal to conclude this discussion with the brief summary done by Imam Suyuti (May Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him). Imam Suyuti mentioned,

??? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ??? ? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ???? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ??? ???? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ???? ????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ??? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ???? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ???????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ????? (????? ???????? 280-282 ??? ??? ???????)

The hadith of Abdaals is authentic, leave alone being lesser than that. If you desire, you can even say it is mutawatir. I have dedicated an entire treatise to this topic in which I covered the various chains of narrators pertaining to this subject. The summary is that it is narrated by

1) Ibn Umar (radhi Allahu anhu) as narrated by Ibn Asaakir via two chains.

2) Ali (radhi Allahu anhu) as narrated by Ahmad, At Tabrani, Al Hakim etc with over ten channels; some of which are (in conformity) with the conditions of Saheeh (Al Bukhari).

3) Anas (radhi Allahu anhu). Narrated through six chains, amongst them is the chain mentioned in Al Mujam al Awsat of At Tabrani which Allamah Al Haythami has graded as good in Majma az zawaaid.

4) Ubaadah bin as Samit (radhi Allahu anhu) as narrated by Imam Ahmad with a authentic chain.

5) Ibn Abbaas (radhi Allahu anhu). Imam Ahmad mentioned it in Az Zuhdwith an authentic chain.

6) Ibn Umar (radhi Allahu anhu) which is narrated through three different chains in Al Mujam al kabeer, Karaamaat al Awliyaa of Khallal and Abu Nuaim.

7) Ibn Masood (radhi Allahu anhu). This is narrated through two chains; (one in) Al Mujam al Kabeer and (the other) is in Al Hulya.

8) Auf bin Malik which is narrated in At Tabrani with a good chain.

9) Muaaz bin Jabal. Imsm Daylami narrated his report.

10) Abu Saeed Al Kudri. Imam Bayhaqi narrated his report in ‘As Shu’ab’.

11) Abu Hurairah. It is narrated through a different chain from what Ibn al Jawzi narrated. (This chain) is transmitted By Al Khallaal in ‘Karaamaat al Awliyah’.

12) Umm Salamah. The chain has been transmitted by Ahmad, Abu Dawood, Al Hakim, Al Bayhaqi and others.

From the Mursal, (there are narrations from the following Tabi’een) (Note-Majority of the Scholars accept Mursal Ahadith, although Imam Shafi puts just a few conditions)

1) Hasan which is narrated by Ibn Abi ad dunya in his ‘Sakha’ and Al Bayhaqi in ‘Ash Shuab’.

2) Ata. It has been narrated by Abu Dawood in his ‘Maraasil’

3) Bakr bin Hunaish. Ibn Abi ad Dunyanarrates it in his book ‘Al Awliyah’.

4) Shahr bin Hawhab which has been narrated by Ibn Jareer in his Tafseer.

As for he Aathaar, there is narrations recorded from the following

1) Hasan Basri

2) Qatadah

3) Khalid bin Madaan

4) Abi az Zaahiriyyah

5) Ibn Shawdhab

6) Ata

There are numerous other traditions transmitted from many more Tabi’een and Scholars who came after them. There is no doubt that the like of this has most definitely reached the status of tawaatur ma’anawi. Out of necessity, a person has to have firm conviction on the existence of Abdaals. (An Nukat al badi’aat 280-282)

2) As for the issue of tauheed, it is obvious that if a person does not accept the oneness of Allah Ta’ala, he will not accept the Quraan, hadith and the consensus of Companions as the source of guidance. It is precisely for this reason that Allah Ta’ala exhorted the disbelievers in numerous verses to apply their mind and intellect. Hereunder, we have cited just a few as examples

?????? ?????? - (? 1 / ? 42)

??? ?????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????????

?????? ?????? - (? 1 / ? 154)

??? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???? ???????? ??????? ???????????

?????? ?????? - (? 1 / ? 167)

??? ?????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???????????

?????? ?????? - (? 1 / ? 244)

????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????????

?????? ?????? - (? 1 / ? 259)

?????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????

?????? ?????? - (? 1 / ? 295)

????? ????????? ???? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????????

It should be noted that we differ with the philosophers in the sense that philosophers treat reason as equal to the Quran (i.e. if there is contradiction between Quran and intellect, they would prefer one), whereas we consider reason to be a tabi of the Quran (i.e. reason will only be accepted if it is in conformity with Quran and hadith; Quran and hadith is the basis). This can well be understood from a text mentioned in Nibraas (an authoritive book in Matureedi Aqeedah) which is similar to the one you transmitted. The author says

?????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ? ????? ? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ? ?????- ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ??? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ? ????? ? ?????? ? ??????? ? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ? ????? ? ???? ? ????? ? ???? ?????? ? ?? ? ?? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????….

? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????? ? ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????

In short, according to the Ahl as sunnah wal Jama’ah (Matureedis and Asharies), reason is suspended on Quran and hadith. Only that reason will be accepted which is in conformity to Quran and Hadith.

And All?h Ta??la Knows Best

Wassal?mu ?alaykum

D?rul Ift?, Madrasah In??miyyah

 
If a person not referring to himself and not knowing the meaning of what he is saying says my name is avatar, does this constitute kufr. PDF Print E-mail

Normal 0 false false false EN-ZA X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:3.7pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; text-align:right; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-ZA;}

Q: 269 – Title: If a person not referring to himself and not knowing the meaning of what he is saying says my name is avatar, does this constitute kufr.

Question

If a person not referring to himself and not knowing the meaning of what he is saying says my name is avatar, does this constitute kufr.

Answer

In the name of All?h, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Assal?mu ?alaykum wa Rahmatull?hi Wabarak?tuh

Avatar is a concept adopted by common Hindus. Avatar is a Sanskrit idiom where “Av” means “Down” and “Tr” means “Passover”. Therefore Avatar means to descend down or to tumble down.    Avatar in the oxford Dictionary is, “(In Hindu Mythology) the descent of a deity or released soul to earth in bodily form”.

Hindu believes that God comes down to the earth in some bodily form to protect the religion, to set an example or to set the rules for human beings.

On the other hand an avatar is a computer user's representation of himself/herself whether in the form of a three-dimensional model used in computer games, a two-dimensional icon (picture) or a one-dimensional username used on Internet forum and other communities, or a text construct found on early systems. The term "avatar" can also refer to the personality connected with the screen name, or handle, of an Internet user.

However your statement will not constitute kufr as you did not have the intention to commit kufr, other than that, one should refrain from calling himself such gross name.

And All?h Ta??la Knows Best

Wassal?mu ?alaykum

D?rul Ift?, Madrasah In??miyyah

 
I fully understand the concept of a sheikh and i have no proboem with it. It is just that i have many people who are mureeds ...Q2. another problem i have is the group of sunni & tabliqh. I am being put under alot of pressure from both parties to foll PDF Print E-mail

Normal 0 false false false EN-ZA X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:3.7pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; text-align:right; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-ZA;}

Q: 267 – Title: Q1. I fully understand the concept of a sheikh and i have no proboem with it. It is just that i have many people who are mureeds ...Q2. another problem i have is the group of sunni & tabliqh. I am being put under alot of pressure from both parties to foll

Question

Mufti saheb & all ulama of darul iftaa, may allah grant you all great reward for your services & long life with excellent health so you all can continue all this good work. i have two questions.

Q1. I fully understand the concept of a sheikh and i have no proboem with it. It is just that i have many people who are mureeds and they insist on me becoming a mureed of someone. And they tell me that if i donnot have a sheikh then shaythaan will be my sheikh and lead me the wrong way, Is this true?

As i have very strong faith in allah and i have trust in all our authenthic ulema but i donnot have the desire to become mureed of any one. My faith is in Quran, Hadeeth, Zikr and all ulema that comply. will this belief be ok???

Q2. another problem i have is the group of sunni & tabliqh. I am being put under alot of pressure from both parties to follow they life style. But i want to live a moderate life with out being extreme on any path. which ever group does sincere permissable acts of worship i will participate with them both but will not classify myself to any particular group. I just want lead a life of moderate basis and follow what my faith & heart is at ease with?

Answer

In the name of All?h, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Assal?mu ?alaykum wa Rahmatull?hi Wabarak?tuh

Regarding your first query:

From the outset, it is essential to understand two issues:

1) The need for Spiritual reform.

2) Taking the Bay’at, the pledge of allegiance.

1) THE NEED FOR SPIRITUAL REFORM

Apart from the Ambiyaa alayhimus salam, the Sahabah radi allahu anhum were those individuals who attained the highest form of excellence in all aspects of Din. They were embodiments of virtue and piety, imbued with perfection in the matters of Din relating to both, the external and internal self. Their sincere commitment and sacrifice for Din was unparalleled. They were the torchbearers of Islam, who spread the light of Din and impressed it on others by mere character and honest practice. Their actions really spoke ‘louder than words!’ However, the question to be asked, what was the secret and backbone leading to this unmatched excellence and effect of theirs? We too are Muslims; does our practice also impress others and reflect the great cause of Islam which we proudly represent?

Nevertheless, all these achievements were primarily due to them been in the auspicious company of the most supreme of mankind, in the company of Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wasallam). Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wasallam) was their mentor, tutor and guide in every aspect of their lives. They accompanied him at all times, whether in the city of Makkah Mukarramah and Madinah Munawwarh or out on journeys, studying his lifestyle, fervently serving him and most importantly, implementing his priceless teachings. Their fervor for Din knew no bounds and resulted in them progressing and mastering the various sciences of Din, i.e. the branches of Hadith, Fiqh, Tafsir, Qira’ah, etc.

However, a very interesting point to note here is that, though the Sahabah radi allahu anhum were experts in the various aspects of Din, we do not know them by such terms. We do not refer to them as Hafiz so and so, Qari so and so, Mufti so and so, etc. rather, we merely suffice on the word “Sahabi or Sahabah” (the companion/s of Rasulullah Sallalahu Alayhi Wasallam). When referring to them; don’t we usually say, “Abu Bakr radi allahu anhum, the Sahabi of Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wasallam), Uthman radi allahu anhum, the Sahabi of Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wasallam), etc.? The reason for adopting this form of reference is because suhbah (companionship of Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wasallam), was the highest form of achievement featuring in their lives. To accompany a saintly person is undoubtedly beneficial, imagine accompanying Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wasallam), the greatest personality of mankind? Therefore, there was so to say, no better quality in portraying their superior caliber other than terming them “Sahabah”radi allahu anhum.

Furthermore, the term, “Sahabah”, would later serve as a lesson and reminder for the forthcoming generations that, “Should you, the Ummatis of Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wasallam), also desire to become like the Sahabahradi allahu anhum, then tread this path of ‘Suhbah’, companionship!”

N.B: ‘Suhbah’ refers to the concept of accompanying a pious or scholarly personality. In latter days it became a more popularly used term to refer to accompanying and, communicating ones spiritual difficulties and ailments, to a Sheikh, a pious person, for the sake of reform. This method of reform became the common and established practice of people in the latter eras.[1]

It was this suhbah which transformed the lives of Sahabah radi allahu anhum to becoming the foundation and unshaken pillars of Islam. In fact, this was what kindled and supplemented their remarkable concern (fikr), love and sacrifice for Islam; characteristics which are the core and essence of Islam and hallmark evident in their lives!

Moving on… Experiencing and cherishing the remarkable benefit acquired through the company of Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wasallam), his advices, etc., once Nabi (Sallalahu Alayhi Wasallam) had passed away, the Sahabah radi allahu anhum immediately renewed their submission and obedience on the hands of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr radi allahu anhum, thereafter on the hands of Sayyiduna Umar radi allahu anhum, and so on. This was done through the Bay’at (pledge of allegiance). The Bay’at was not to merely facilitate the management and smooth running of the Muslim empire. Instead, it was an allegiance to serve him, obey his instructions and also for internal purification[2]; hence, compounding the spiritual gain they were once receiving from Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wasallam).

N.B: Self Reformation, internal purification, and other similar terms, basically refer to the effort of ridding oneself of evil qualities such as, jealousy, hatred, self centeredness, etc. whilst persevering to inculcate praiseworthy qualities like, generosity, compassion, humility, etc. The easiest technique of doing so is by inculcating an intense and burning feeling of love for Allah Ta’ala which will naturally make the saalik (it refers to the individual who applies himself in this path of suhbah) accomplish his goal in an extremely short span of time.

This practice of suhbah then became the common feature in the lives of the people, especially the religious divines coming thereafter despite their immense academic expertise. It became a deep-rooted trend and technique of acquiring spiritual benefit. The personality whom one corresponds with and communicates his spiritual difficulties is termed as Sheikh; mashaikh being the plural form, translated as mentor or guide in English.

We will enlist the names of a few great Ulama and personalities, right up till this day and age, who also adopted suhbah as a means of spiritual advancement. These names will provide ample testimony and only overwhelm one to the credibility and benefit one attains in this path:

HEREUNDER FOLLOW THE NAMES OF A FEW FORMER AND LATTER DAY ULAMA

1) Thabit Al-Bunani rehmatullah alayh, accompanied Sayyiduna Anas radi allahu anhum for 40yrs.

2) The famous Imam Muslim rehmatullah alayh, accompanied Imam Bukhari rehmatullah alayh for 6yrs.

3) Imam Al-Qa’nabi rehmatullah alayh, accompanied Imam Malik rehmatullah alayh for 30yrs.

4) Hajee Imdadullah Muhajir Makki rehmatullah alayh.

5) Hazrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi rehmatullah alayh.

6) Hazrat Maulana Rashid Ahmed Gangohi rehmatullah alayh.

7) Hazrat Maulana Qasim Nanotwi rehmatullah alayh, founder of Darul Uloom Deoband

8) Hazrat Maulana Khalil Ahmed Saharanpuri rehmatullah alayh

9) Hazrat Sheikh, Maulana Muhammad Zakariyya Kandelvi rehmatullah alayh.

10) Hazrat Mufti Mahmudul Hasan Gangohi rehmatullah alayh.

HEREUNDER FOLLOW THE NAMES OF A FEW PRESENT DAY ULAMA

1) Hazrat Maulana Yunus Patel Saheb, Khalifah of Hazrat Maulana Shah Hakim Muhammad Akhtar Saheb.

2) Hazrat Maulana Abdul Hamid Ishaq Saheb, Khalifah of Hazrat Maulana Shah Hakim Muhammad Akhtar Saheb.

3) Hazrat Mufti Ebrahim Salejee Saheb, Khalifah of Hazrat Mufti Mahmudul Hasan Gangohi Saheb rehmatullah alayh.

4) Hazrat Maulana Ebrahim Pandor Saheb, Khalifah of Hazrat

5) Hazrat Maulana Zul Fiqar Ahmed Naqshbandi Saheb, Khalifah of Hazrat Maulana Gulam Habib Saheb rehmatullah alayh.

[A Note from the Answerer: Our Respected Ustad, Hazrat Mufti Ebrahim Desai Saheb is also deeply linked with this field and is the senior Khalifah of Hazrat Mufti Mahmudul Hasan Gangohi Saheb rehmatullah alayh.]

Along with these names, there are numerous other Ulama, speaking for South Africa alone, who have adopted this line and have such relationship with Mashaikh. This selection and preference of theirs is motivated solely by their sound and deep-rooted knowledge and understanding of the Shariah.

A point to note here is that, many of whom were mentioned above had both, a student-teacher based relationship, as well as one of gaining spiritual purification.

Hence, if Ulama and high ranking personalities such as the above felt the need to adopt suhbah for their reform, one can well imagine the more intense urgency for uneducated spiritually ailing individuals like us, to apply ourselves in the field of suhbah! Adopting these means will also, to a great extent enhance ones sincerity in all matters. At times a person does make taubah (seek repentance) however, with the benevolence of Allah Ta’ala and the blessing of a true pious Sheikh, a person will now be endowed with the quality of steadfastness and loyalty in remaining true to this taubah (trying his best to abstain from the sin).

In fact, consider this motivating and captivating statement of the Honourable, Sheikh Abdul Fattah Abu Ghuddah rehmatullah alayh, a great Syrian scholar of the past century.[3] While commenting on the phenomenal affect which over came the Sahabah radi allahu anhum, the Sheikh states that a similar affect exists today by virtue of even merely glancing at a pious person; the Sheikh comments:

“… Even if someone from the latter eras (meaning, those who did not see people in the likes of the Sahabah radi allahu anhum, etc.) sees a pious and virtuous Aalim, this gaze at the Aalim even though it be for a few seconds, will serve as spiritual nutrition the affect of which will be felt for one’s entire life. The mere glance will now propel him to acts of virtue and obedience whenever he cherishes and thinks of this moment.”[4]

(Risalatul Mustarshidin – pg.19, Darus Salam)

Conclusively, understand that the quest for spiritual reform is a Fardh, an incumbent duty upon every individual. A very easy and accepted practice of doing so is adopting the path of Suhbah. Also, whilst an earnest attempt is made to elaborate on the immense benefit one may achieve in the path of suhbah, and that a great amount of latter day people adopt suhbah for spiritual reform, we in no way wish to sideline and degrade the benefit one may achieve from the other commonly practiced efforts of Din.

2) TAKING THE BAY’AT, THE PLEDGE OF ALLEGIANCE

Mufti Muhammad Shafi rehmatullah alayh, the author of the tafsir entitled ‘Ma’ariful Quran’ states:

“Bay’at means to, take a promise for performing some special deed. Its customary method according to the Sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wasallam) is to place the hands of both persons one on top of the other.”

In the event where this Bay’at is taken, the disciple gives an assurance that he will act upon the advices and instructions of his Sheikh.

As for the status that bay’at holds in the Shariah: It is essentially important to know that bay’at is indeed a sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wasallam) but in no way a wajib (obligation). (Though it is extremely meritorious to enter into a bay’at) it is neither sinful to leave it out.[5] Reformation, which is the actual aim and purpose of accompanying and communicating with a Sheikh, may be achieved without even taking the Bay’at. Bay’at is not a requirement for reformation. However, becoming a disciple (mureed) of a sheikh in the customary manner also has its advantages; one of which is that the spiritual teacher pays more attention to his disciple, and in turn, the disciple takes special care in obeying his spiritual teacher.

Nevertheless, once reading the above and realising the importance of adopting a Sheikh, let us now focus on your queries:

A) You mention regarding the insistence of your friends:

Well! Understand it in this light; it is only normal and in fact courteous, that once a person witnesses the benefit of a particular commodity, venture, etc. he wishes others to reap the same. In a similar way, the insistence of your friends should be viewed in the same light. They have realized and achieved great benefit in the line of suhbah (for spiritual purification), and expressing the sentiments of a true Muslim, also desire that you receive the same benefit.  In fact, this is a very good sign for Allah’s Rasul (Sallalahu Alayhi Wasallam) has stated:

“No person can become a true believer until he likes for his fellow Muslim that which he likes for himself.”[6]

(Ibn Majah p.8; Qadimi)

Yes, at the same token, it is extremely important that the attitude and approach of your friends be in correct measure. They should encourage you with much tact and wisdom, explaining the benefits they have achieved, in a kind gentle manner. Never should they adopt a contemptuous harsh, mean and ‘better than thou’ attitude. Islam encourages the spreading of good and at the same time teaches us the art of accomplishing the same.

B) As for Shaytan becoming your Sheikh:

Remember! Just as how a student acquires his knowledge from a qualified teacher, so too is the case with developing perfection in character, morals and spirituality, this should also be acquired under the tutorship of the Mashaikh, the experts in this field. Spiritual maladies such as pride, jealousy, etc. are at times easy to detect but the diagnosis will be in accordance to an individual. Sometimes, the malady is obscure and discrete. Only an expert in this field can detect it. In such instances, if one eventually does identify a malady, he may adopt the incorrect therapy. There are numerous incidents mentioned of this sort, where the diagnosis and treatment was incorrect. At times, this even proved fatal. There is an Arabic proverb to encapsulate and illustrate this point, it says:

?????? ??????????? ????????

The spiritual diagnosis of a spiritually ill person is also diseased and ailing.

One should therefore submit to a pious personality, continuously adopt his company, communicate ones spiritual difficulties and adhere strictly to his diagnosis. If you hold fast to the above ‘formula’, Allah Ta’ala will soon bless your endevours, Inshallah. Allah Ta’ala has affirmed this promise of His by stating:

???????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????????? ?????????

We will most definitely open up our avenues of insight and guidance (hidayat) for those who exert themselves in our cause.[7]

C) As for averring to have ‘very strong faith in Allah’; Remember! Though it is laudable to express gratitude to Allah Ta’ala for endowing one with the great wealth of Iman, at the same time, it is totally inappropriate for a Muslim to brazenly claim strong belief in Allah Ta’ala. Nabi (Sallalahu Alayhi Wasallam) has constantly exhorted a Muslim to have concern and fear of his Iman. Nabi (Sallalahu Alayhi Wasallam) has stated in a hadith:

“A Muslims (concern and fear of his Iman is such that) he considers his sins to be like a mountain near which he is stands fearing the mountain falling onto him (destroying him, i.e. his sins are burdensome to him like the weight of a mountain). On the other hand, a sinful Muslim (is so unaffected by his sins that) he considers it to be like a fly which sits on his nose (the seriousness of sin and disobeying Allah Ta’ala has as yet not dawned upon him).”[8]

(Sunan Tirmizi # 2497; Maktabuth Thaqafiyyah, Beirut)

I.e. he never has the ‘guts’ to profess having strong faith for at the same time, he is a perpetrator of many sins too. Islam advocates moderation; so be grateful for your faith, make an earnest attempt to strengthen it and, at the same time fear over your sins!

Regarding your second query:

It is rather unfortunate that the once united Ummah of Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wasallam) has now been fragmented so extensively. Islam advocates and teaches us to adopt the path of moderation. Allah Ta’ala has given us clear guidelines that in all aspects of our lives, we should use the Quran and Sunnah as our model. Whatever conforms to it, we guard and follow and whatever is opposed to it we disregard. Most of the time, because our minds and hearts become so clouded and murky because of sin, not every individual is capable of deciding what is right from wrong, or who ought to be followed and who ought not to follow.

In such a case, just like how one would seek guidance at night by the stars, similarly, in religious issues as this, one should acquire guidance from the Ulama. We should follow those Ulama who are considered to be righteous and reliable; follow whatever they say and be sure that you are being rightly guided.

And All?h Ta??la Knows Best

Wassal?mu ?alaykum

D?rul Ift?, Madrasah In??miyyah

 
My primary aim in life is to die a muslim with the Kalemaah on my lips. My problem is this:I have hindu girl friend (i know it is a sin to even get into such a relationship). We have agreed that she would be accepting Islam wholeheartedly after nikaah. PDF Print E-mail

Normal 0 false false false EN-ZA X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:3.7pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; text-align:right; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-ZA;}

Q: 268 – Title: My primary aim in life is to die a muslim with the Kalemaah on my lips. My problem is this:I have hindu girl friend (i know it is a sin to even get into such a relationship). We have agreed that she would be accepting Islam wholeheartedly after nikaah.

Question

My primary aim in life is to die a muslim with the Kalemaah on my lips. My problem is this:I have hindu girl friend (i know it is a sin to even get into such a relationship). We have agreed that she would be accepting Islam wholeheartedly after nikaah.

Before nikaan she wants to a registered marriage and before that a hindu wedding. I have argued that such a ceremony should not be in a temple and should be with minimal ceremony. Nikaah would be done after all such dramatic activities have been carried out. Once Nikaah has been done, no such activity will be tolerated after that ever in life.

I initially refused the hindu wedding but because of her pleadings I have concented one last time. Nothing after this which is un-islamic will ever be done.

I need your advice as to is this the right path or have I already become a kafir.

Please do guide. I am sure such questions have been asked to you earlier but I could not resist.

Answer

In the name of All?h, Most Gracious, Most Merciful


Assal?mu ?alaykum wa Rahmatull?hi Wabarak?tuh

Having been inundated with work, we sincerely apologize for this belated response. Moreover, we decided to research the aspect of how Hindu weddings are conducted to facilitate answering your query in the best possible manner.

Mashallah! It is very encouraging to note that you have already chalked out your priorities in life; dying with the Kalimah on your lips, what else could be better? To have such an aspiration is indeed meritorious, however, of equal importance is for one to make a concerted effort in this direction. May Allah Ta’ala grant you the strength to overcome any sort of obstacle which may hinder you from this cherished goal.

It is indeed laudable to draw someone into the fold of Isl?m. The benefit of doing so is replete in the ah?dith. However, the endevour of sharing the light of Isl?m should never be at the expense of your own faith; putting your Im?n at stake and eventually extinguishing the light of your Im?n. This would apply irrespective of her later embracing Islam wholeheartedly or you having the intention to abandon any sort of irreligious activity later. Remember! By acceding to the request of this lady, you will be doing just the same.

Nevertheless, to understand the serious consequences of a Hindu marriage ceremony (abiding by their customs, rituals, etc.) we present an overview of how the ceremonies are conducted. By merely reading through the following, it will only prove self evident as too how these types of ceremonies trample and contravene the core and fundamental principles of Isl?m. A Hindu wedding, in particular, is packed with culture and rituals; practicing upon which could eventually render one out of the fold of Islam.

OVERVIEW TO A HINDU WEDDING CEREMONY:

Firstly, know that Hinduism is a polytheistic religion, rich in ceremonies, rituals, customs, etc. Hindus base their way of life on sacred laws from their Holy books such as the Vedas, Ramayana, G?ta, Mahabharta, etc. Since Hindus believe that all existing matter is comprised of earth, water, fire, wind and aksha (air), they often make ritualistic offerings, symbolizing each element, at dawn or dusk at Hindu temples. Their offerings are complemented with drum beating, bugle-blowing, bell ringing, and the chanting of the Vedas. Some of these rituals are also performed at wedding ceremonies.

Since there are diverse cultures and traditions in the Hindu religion, the engagement and wedding ceremony rituals differ from region to region and community to community. We will outline only the basic rituals which form an indispensable part of a Hindu wedding. Included in this overview are the rituals which occur the night before the wedding for they also form an important part to the wedding ceremony.

PRELIMINARY ACTIVITIES TO THE WEDDING: After the selection procedure is over, i.e. selection of a prospective husband and wife, the family members of both the boy and girl ask the priest to suggest an auspicious date for the engagement of the two. This is commonly known as “misri” or ring ceremony.

After the festive spirit of engagement, the next important ritual is the “mehndi party”. It is believed that the color of mehndi signifies the essence of love in a marriage; hence it is put on the bride's hand to strengthen that bond of love. The bride's family and friends mainly celebrate this ceremony. Apart from the bride, the family members also get their hands painted with henna. Singing traditional songs and dancing to the beat of music forms a major part of this ritual.

NOTE: The above paragraph should serve as an eye opener to the naïve Muslim public, as to how Hindu culture has infiltrated the pristine teachings of Islam. Such “parties” have also become an inseparable part of most Muslim marriages!

Among the other important rituals is the “Sangeet party”, wherein all the family members and friends of the bride and groom celebrate, by singing and dancing the night away. The “Sangeet party” is most popular among Punjabis, Marwaris and Gujaratis, although most of the regions today also practice this ritual.

“Ghari puja” is also another important religious ceremony, which is performed on the eve of the wedding day, at the groom and brides place separately.

MORNING OF THE WEDDING: On the morning of the wedding day, “Pithi” or “Haldi”, the cleansing ceremony is practiced during which the bride and bridegroom are pasted with turmeric powder in their respective homes, as a part of their beautification process.

THE ACTUAL MARRIAGE CEREMONY: Hindu weddings mostly take place in a “mandap” or a tent, which is beautifully decorated with flowers. The main Hindu wedding ceremony is a long and elaborate affair, which lasts for several hours and is attended by a large number of relatives, friends, acquaintances, etc. other vital aspects forming part of the ceremony are mentioned below:

Vara SatkaarahThis refers to the reception of the bridegroom and his kinsmen at the entrance gate of the wedding tent or hall where the officiating priest chants a few mantras and the bride's mother blesses the groom with rice and trefoil and applies “tilak” of vermilion and turmeric powder.

Kanya Dan - The bride's father gives away his daughter to the groom amidst the chanting of sacred mantras.

Vivah-Homa – This refers to the sacred fire ceremony ascertaining that all auspicious undertakings are begun in an atmosphere of purity and spirituality.

Pratigna-Karan - Vows in a Hindu marriage are made before a fire which is symbolic to God, the Radiant One; thus their promises are witnessed by the God's wisdom, truth, and justice. The couple walk round the fire, the bride leading, and take solemn vows of loyalty, steadfast love and life-long fidelity to each other. While the bride and the groom take the seven circles around the fire, the priest recites the mantras, whilst others also chant the same. It is during this time also that, the groom fills vermillion or “sindoor” in the center parting of the bride and puts “mangalsutra” around her neck. Both “sindoor” and “mangalsutra” have strong religious implications and are sacred symbols of a married woman.

Abhishek - Sprinkling of water, meditating on the sun and the pole star.

Anna Praashan - The couple then make food offerings into the fire then feed a morsel of food to each other.[1]

FINAL WORD

Mentioned above, are only the basic and indispensable rituals which occur in Hindu marriages. It is quite evident that almost all the customs have religious and polytheistic connotation. Therefore, if any Muslim opts for his marriage to be conducted in the procedure mentioned above, such as circumambulating around the fire, meditating on the sun and polar star, etc. this would be tantamount to revering the sacred features of another religion, which is Kufr (disbelief), and will cast him out of the fold of Islam.  These practices are against the grain and principles of Islam. Hence, if you have your nikah performed in such a manner, there is no doubt that you will also be placing your faith (Iman) at stake and treading the path of Kufr.

Your initial refusal to having a Hindu ceremony is the right stance. Holding firm to the teachings of Islam is indeed the sign of your true and ardent love you possess for Allah Ta’ala and His Rasul (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam). Allah Ta’ala acknowledges the commitment of His bondsman and appreciates the love and sacrifice they offer for His cause. If you are steadfast, Allah will surely make a way out for you from this difficulty. You should therefore, maintain this devotion and never be intimidated to compromise any teaching of Islam. Always remember the comforting ayats of the Quran:

“Whoever adopts piety, Allah will most definitely create an avenue or way out to his problems.[2]

(Qur’?n 65:2)

Also,

“We will most definitely open up our avenues of insight and guidance (hidayat) for those who exert themselves in our cause.[3]

(Qur’?n 29:69)

On the other hand, if you will accede to the pleadings of your wife-to-be, then the laws of Allah Ta’ala will be flouted. If Allah’s laws are contravened in the beginning of marriage; what is subsequent to this will only be worse? Also, generally after a nikah, as Muslims, we implore Allah Ta’ala to shower His choicest of mercy and blessings on this ; for these blessings is what brings about unity, love and mutual respect in a marriage. By going the route of having a Hindu ceremony, one is in fact incurring the exact opposite. By carrying out such practices, one will be attracting the wrath of Allah Ta’ala? What good can ever be expected from such a marriage?

You aver not to commit anything un-Islamic later: Remember! Nikah is a means of creating a turning point in the couple’s lives to become better Muslims. In this case, the boy ought to draw the girl into religious practices but, here; the total opposite is coming into effect. Also, you, the husband-to-be, is only submitting to the pleadings of your wife because of your love for her; it is only obvious that once a progresses, so too does the love for each other also increase. One can well imagine that when your love for her matures, how much more you will accede to her pleadings and be temted to flout the teaching of Islam? Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) has said:

“(It is not permissible) to comply and obey the creation (man) if it entails defying and disobeying the Creator.”[4]

(Majmauz Zaw?id, v.5, p.226)

OUR ADVICE

You should, with much deliberation, tact and wisdom, try to needle yourself out of this situation. You can suggest a neutral venue for the nikah. At the same time, you can probably suggest having a very simply marriage with a mere proposal and acceptance. In this way, the nikah will be recognized in the Shariah and outwardly, there would not be any prejudice to any party.

No, you have not become a Kafir by acceding to her request though what you have done is absolutely wrong and complacency (mudahanat) to your Iman.

And All?h Ta??la Knows Best

Wassal?mu ?alaykum

D?rul Ift?, Madrasah In??miyyah

 
I would like to know if a married muslim woman committs adultery & have illegitimate physical relations with another married man other than her lawfully wed husband, what... PDF Print E-mail

Normal 0 false false false EN-ZA X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:3.7pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; text-align:right; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-ZA;}

Q: 266 – Title: I would like to know if a married muslim woman committs adultery & have illegitimate physical relations with another married man other than her lawfully wed husband, what...

Question

I would like to know if a married muslim woman committs adultery & have illegitimate physical relations with another married man other than her lawfully wed husband, what does the Islamic-Sharia says for such a woman/man.

Secondly, since undobtedly both of them have committed sins, what should be the kaffara in their respective cases so that they can lead a normal life without any guilt feeling & repentence & their conscience don't bite them in their future lives.

Finally, does their respective nikaahs still remain valid ? if no, then what are the implications on their respective lives thereafter & what should they do if they still want to remain loyal & lawfully-married to their respective spouses.

Answer

In the name of All?h, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Assal?mu ?alaykum wa Rahmatull?hi Wabarak?tuh

Such a man and woman, according to the Shariah, have had committed a major sin. It is fard (compulsory) upon them to immediately, without delay, do repentance (tauba). Therefore, if one delays the repentance, then apart from repenting for the actual sin, it is also compulsory to repent for having delayed the repentance. Failure to repent from sins will make such a person liable to receive unbearable punishment after death. For a major sin, such as committing adultery, sincere repentance is the only kaffara (atonement).

Repentance, according to the Shariah, comprises of the following components:

1) Abandoning the sin.

2) Having remorse for having committed the sin because it is a sin. If one has remorse for committing the sin because of its harmful effect on his health or wealth, for example, then the repentance is not valid.

3) Having firm determination not to commit the sin again.

4) If the sin involved unlawfully taking another person’s right, then to give back his right. And if the sin involved leaving an act of worship that was obligatory on him, then to make up for it (by doing qadaa’).

?? ??? ???? ???? ????: ??? ??????? – ???? ???? ????? ???? ???????? ???? – ??????: ?? ??? ?????: ????? ??? ... ( ???? ?????) ... ?????? ????????: ?? ??????: ???: ????? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ???? ? ?????? ??????? ???? ? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ? ????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?? ???????? ? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ????? ... ( ??? ???? )... ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ... ( ???? ??? )... ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ( ??????? ???????: ? 353 ? 372 ? ??? ?????? )

After a person does sincere repentance with all the components mentioned above, he should rest assured that the sin is now forgiven. Allah Ta’ala says in the Holy Quran: (Translation) And He it is Who accepts repentance from His servants and pardons the evil deeds and He knows what you do (Quran 42:25). Abu Ubaidah ibn Abdullah narrates from his father that Rasulullah (sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam) said, “One who repents from the sin is like one who has no sin.” (Ibn Maajah, hadith 4240).

Although committing adultery is a major sin, the nikah of one who committed such a sin will remain intact.

And All?h Ta??la Knows Best

Wassal?mu ?alaykum

D?rul Ift?, Madrasah In??miyyah

 
«StartPrev12345678910NextEnd»

Page 1 of 851
 

Who's Online

We have 175 guests online